Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, andlanguage. The Ancient Greek word φιλοσοφία (philosophia) was probably coined by Pythagoras and literally means “love of wisdom” or “friend of wisdom”. Philosophy has been divided into many sub-fields. It has been divided chronologically (e.g., ancient and modern); by topic (the major topics being epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, andaesthetics); and by style (e.g., analytic philosophy).
As a method, philosophy is often distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its questioning, critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. As a noun, the term “philosophy” can refer to any body of knowledge.Historically, these bodies of knowledge were commonly divided into natural philosophy, moral philosophy, and metaphysical philosophy. In casual speech, the term can refer to any of “the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group,” (e.g., “Dr. Smith’s philosophy of parenting”).
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