JavaServer Pages (JSP) JSP is a technology that helps software developers create dynamically generated web pages based on HTML, XML, or other document types. Released in 1999 by Sun Microsystems,JSP is similar to PHP and ASP, but it uses the Java programming language. To deploy and run JavaServer Pages, a compatible web server with a servlet container, such as Apache Tomcat or Jetty, is required. Architecturally, JSP may be viewed as a high-level abstraction of Java servlets. JSPs are translated into servlets at runtime; each JSP servlet is cached and re-used until the original JSP is modified. JSP can be used independently or as the view component of a server-side modelviewcontroller design, normally with JavaBeans as the model and Java servlets (or a framework such as Apache Struts) as the controller. This is a type of Model 2 architecture. JSP allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be interleaved with static web markup content, such as HTML, with the resulting page being compiled and executed on the server to deliver a document. The compiled pages, as well as any dependent Java libraries, contain Java bytecode rather than machine code. Like any other Java program, they must be executed within a Java virtual machine (JVM) that interacts with the server’s host operating system to provide an abstract, platform-neutral environment. JSPs are usually used to deliver HTML and XML documents, but through the use of OutputStream, they can deliver other types of data as well. The Web container creates JSP implicit objects like pageContext, servletContext, session, request & response. Servlets A Java servlet is a Java program that extends the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they most commonly implement applications hosted on Web servers. Such Web servlets are the Java counterpart to other dynamic Web content technologies such as PHP and ASP.NET. Servlets are most often used to process or store a Java class in Java EE that conforms to the Java Servlet API, a standard for implementing Java classes which respond to requests. Servlets could in principle communicate over any clientserver protocol, but they are most often used with the HTTP protocol. Thus “servlet” is often used as shorthand for “HTTP servlet”.Thus, a software developer may use a servlet to add dynamic content to a web server using the Java platform. The generated content is commonly HTML, but may be other data such as XML. Servlets can maintain state in session variables across many server transactions by using HTTP cookies, or rewriting URLs. To deploy and run a servlet, a web container must be used. A web container (also known as a servlet container) is essentially the component of a web server that interacts with the servlets. The web container is responsible for managing the lifecycle of servlets, mapping a URL to a particular servlet and ensuring that the URL requester has the correct access rights. The Servlet API, contained in the Java package hierarchy javax.servlet, defines the expected interactions of the web container and a servlet. A Servlet is an object that receives a request and generates a response based on that request. The basic Servlet package defines Java objects to represent servlet requests and responses, as well as objects to reflect the servlet’s configuration parameters and execution environment. The package javax.servlet.http defines HTTP-specific subclasses of the generic servlet elements, including session management objects that track multiple requests and responses between the web server and a client. Servlets may be packaged in a WAR file as a web application. Servlets can be generated automatically from Java Server Pages (JSP) by the JavaServer Pages compiler. The difference between servlets and JSP is that servlets typically embed HTML inside Java code, while JSPs embed Java code in HTML. While the direct usage of servlets to generate HTML (as shown in the example below) has become rare, the higher level MVC web framework in Java EE (JSF) still explicitly uses the servlet technology for the low level request/response handling via the FacesServlet. A somewhat older usage is to use servlets in conjunction with JSPs in a pattern called “Model 2”, which is a flavor of the modelviewcontroller. The current version of Servlet is 3.1.
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